Read PDF The Sky over L.A. is Yellow/Grey (The Mythology of the Modern World)

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Emerson as one commonly used to secure a prosperous year:. O Ku, O Li! Soften your land that it may bring forth. Bring forth where?

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Bring forth in the sea [naming the fishing ground], squid, ulua fish. Encourage your land to bring forth. Bring forth, on land, potatoes, taro, gourds, coconuts, bananas, calabashes. Bring forth what? Bring forth men, women, children, pigs, fowl, food, land. Bring forth chiefs, commoners, pleasant living; bring about good will, ward off ill will. Here again, in the antithesis between sea and land, is another illustration like that between male and female of the practical nature of prayer, which sought to omit no fraction of the field covered lest some virtue be lost.

The habit of antithesis thus became a stylistic element in all Hawaiian poetic thought. Imagination played with such mythical conceptions of earth and heaven as Papa and Wakea Awakea, literally midday. Night po was the period of the gods, day ao was that of mankind. Direction was indicated as toward the mountain or the sea, movement as away from or toward the speaker, upward or downward in relation to him; and an innumerable set of trivial pairings like large and small, heavy and soft, gave to the characteristically balanced structure of chant an antithetical turn.

The contrast between upland and lowland, products of the forest and products of the sea, and the economic needs dependent upon each, shows itself as a strong emotional factor in all Hawaiian composition. It was recognized economically in the distribution of land, each family receiving a strip at the shore and a patch in the uplands. It was recognized in the division of the calendar into days, months, and seasons, when those at the shore watched for indications of the ripening season in the uplands and those living inland marked the time for fishing and surfing at the shore. It modified the habits of whole families of colonizers, some of whom made their settled homes in the uplands and in the forested mountain gorges.

It determined the worship of functional gods of forest or sea, upon whom depended success in some special craft. A great number of these early gods of the sea and the forest are given Ku names and are hence to be regarded as subordinate gods under whose name special families worshiped the god Ku, who is to be thought of as presiding over them all.

The Sky over L.A. is Yellow/Grey (The Mythology of the Modern World)

As god of the forest and of rain Ku may be invoked as:. HHS Papers 2: 17— Ku-holoholo-pali Ku sliding down steeps. Ku-pepeiao-loa and -poko Big- and small-eared Ku. Ku-ka-ohia-laka Ku of the ohia-lehua tree. These are only a few of the Ku gods who play a part in Hawaiian mythology. The Ku gods of the forest were worshiped not by the chiefs but by those whose professions took them into the forest or who went there to gather wild food in time of scarcity.


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Kumauna and Ku-ka-ohia-laka were locally worshiped as rain gods. Some equate Ku-pulupulu with the male Laka, called ancestor of the Menehune people, and hence with Ku-ka-ohia-laka, god of the hula dance. Ku-ka-ohia-laka is worshiped by canoe builders in the body of the ohia lehua, the principal hardwood tree of the upland forest. His image in the form of a feather god is also worshiped in the heiau with Ku-nui-akea, Lono, Kane, and Kanaloa. That is why the altar in the dance hall is not complete without a branch of red lehua blossoms.

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Emerson, Pele , —; Westervelt, Honolulu , 97—; For. Malo, — note 5. It bears only two blossoms at a time. If a branch is broken blood will flow. The story of its origin is as follows:. When the sister brings vegetable food from her garden to her brother at the sea, her stingy sister-in-law pretends that they have no fish and gives her nothing but seaweed to take home as a relish.

In despair at this treatment, Kaua transforms her husband and children into rats and herself into a spring of water. Her spirit comes to her brother and tells him of her fate. He visits the uplands, recognizes the spot as she has directed in the dream, and, plunging into the spring, is himself transformed into the lehua tree which we see today. Hina-ulu-ohia Hina the growing ohia tree is the female goddess of the ohia-lehua forest.


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In the genealogies, legends, and romances she appears as mother of Ka-ulu, the voyager, and wife of Ku-ka-ohia-laka; Kailua on the northern side of Oahu is their home. To both god and goddess the flowering ohia is sacred and no one on a visit to the volcano will venture to break the red flowers for a wreath or pluck leaves or branches on the way thither. Only on the return, with proper invocations, may the flowers be gathered.

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A rainstorm is the least of the unpleasant results that may follow tampering with the sacred lehua blossoms. Ku-mauna Ku of the mountain is one of the forest gods banished by Pele for refusing to destroy Lohiau at her bidding. There he incurred the wrath of Pele and was overwhelmed in her fire.

Today the huge boulder of lava which re-. Green and Pukui, Emerson, Pele , As late as a keeper escorted visitors to the sacred valley to see that the god was properly respected and his influence upon the weather restrained within bounds for the benefit of the district. The legend runs as follows:. A tall foreigner comes from Kahiki and cultivates bananas of the iholena variety in a marshy spot of the valley.

Pele comes to him in the shape of an old woman and he refuses to share his bananas with her. She first sends cold, then, as he sits doubled up with his hands pressed against his face trying to keep warm, she overwhelms him with a stream of molten lava. In this shape he is to be seen today encrusted in lava.

Sick people are sometimes brought to a cave near the place where stands Kumauna and left there overnight for healing.

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In case a fish of the proper variety is lacking, a rare plant growing in the vicinity, which has leaves mottled like the sides of the opelu, may be used as a substitute. But all this must be done with the greatest reverence. Visitors to the valley are warned to be quiet and respectful lest a violent rainstorm mar their trip to the mountains.

The story told of Johnny Searle has become a legend of the valley and a warning to irreverent foreigners. Show your power!


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His companions fled. Emerson, Pele , ; J. Emerson, HHS Reports ; local informants. Rain heiau were still to be found in early days on Hawaii. A famous healing kahuna of Ka-u nicknamed Ka-la-kalohe, who worshiped his god the sun in Honokane gulch, is said to have been constantly appealed to by the white planter to invoke rain or sunshine.

When a company go out after doves, offerings are made to them of taro and fish in order to insure fair weather. But if someone follows and strikes the stone which is dedicated to the two spirits, a thunderstorm will fall. A fisherman might choose any one of various fishing gods to worship, and the tapus which he kept depended upon the fish god worshiped. Reddish things were sacred to him. The fisherman's heiau set up at a fishing beach is called after him a kuula. There he built the first fishpond; and when he died he gave to his son Aiai the four magic objects with which he controlled the fish and taught him how to address the gods in prayer and how to set up fish altars.

The objects were a decoy stick called Pahiaku-kahuoi kahuai , a cowry called Leho-ula, a hook called Manai-a-ka-lani, and a stone called Kuula which, if dropped into a pool, had the power to draw the fish thither. Some accounts give Aiai a son named Punia-iki who is a fish kupua and trickster and helps his father set up fishing stations. In this story the god Ku-ula-kai who supplies reproductive energy to all things of the sea is represented by his human worshiper. The man Kuula who served the ruling chief of East Maui as head fisherman has a place on the genealogical line stemming from Wakea.

At the stone Maka-kilo-ia Eyes of the fish watchman placed by Aiai on the summit of Kauiki, fishermen still keep a lookout to watch for akule fish entering the bay. A haul of 28, were drawn up there only a few years ago. All the places named in the legend of Aiai remain as authentic fishing grounds and stations for fishermen in island waters.

Nor is the old practice of offering fish from the first catch to the god upon the fish altar entirely forgotten. Wahiako version. The chief finds the food supply diminishing and his people in want. He appoints Kuula-kai head fisherman and Kuula-uka head cultivator for the whole island.

Kuula-kai builds a fishpond with walls twenty feet thick and ten feet high and an inlet for the fish to go in and out at. Finally appears an enemy who breaks down the walls of the fishpond. At Wailau on Molokai lives a handsome chief named Kekoona who has kupua power.